aneducation researches and adopts the methodologies and approaches of a number of teachers, artists, and thinkers from a variety of periods and backgrounds.… More
Annemarie and Lucius Burckhardt (1930–2012, Switzerland; 1925–2003, Switzerland)
Occupying the Lehrcanapé (“professorial sofa”) at the Gesamthochschule Kassel (now Kassel University) in the Department for the Study of Town Planning/Landscape Planning and practising so-called strollology, the Burckhardts inspired students not only to have a bird’s eye view of the city plan, but also to understand it on a 1:1 scale. What does it mean to walk within the cityscape and how does this change our perception of how to plan for the city? Coming from a background in sociology, the Burckhardts believed that the relationship between the planner or the architect, the city and its people could have a profound effect on the way that we plan for the future—not by asking what needs to be built but “who is planning the planning?” Thinking about the relationship between the kiosk, the tram stop, and the zebra crossing, the Burckhardts’ approach to educating students began with a return to the source of our mobility within the city.
Lina Bo Bardi (1914–1992, Italy)
The Italian-born architect, writer, and publisher Lina Bo Bardi spent the most of her professional career in Brazil. Having devoted her practice to the planning and building of public spaces, she is best known for the Museu de Arte de São Paulo, SESC Pompeia, and the Museu de Arte Moderna da Bahia. Bo Bardi approached notions of publicness, participation, locale, collectivity, and the ever-shifting status of documents and ruins in her architectural practice and scenographic work. Her core interests included how to keep the remnants of pasts—material, social, or oral—accessible, acknowledged, and relevant with a present context. How to work within existing structures? What is the relationship between the document, monument, and collective action? And drawing from this, how to account for the ephemeral moment of transformation? How to discern the diversity and dialectics of the public as audience and collaborator non-hierarchically? And finally, how to form affinities while maneuvering independently within fraught political circumstances?
Oscar and Zofia Hansen (1922–2005, Finland; 1924–2013, Poland)
“We have come to Otterlo to ask and try to answer a simple question: What do we have in common, and how are we to fight for it?,” wrote Oskar and Zofia Hansen in “The Open Form in Architecture—The Art of the Great Number.” Critical of the standardization of architectural forms in social housing, urban planning, and even education in Poland’s postwar period, the Hansens are both credited for the above-quoted manifesto, delivered at the 1959 CIAM gathering in the small Dutch town of Otterlo. As opposed to the “closed form” seen in functionalist responses to growing urban communities—whereby citizens became numbers to be housed, educated and employed—“open form” as an attitude rather than a doctrine, recognized the position of “the individual within the collective,” making them “indispensable in the creation of [their] own surroundings.” Only a few registrations of the Hansens’ “didactic tools” or “apparatuses” exist, mostly captured in photographs or the memories of students as strange analogue contraptions—some weblike and boxy, but always complex in structure, transformable, processual, even playful, and relational—set within a network of affinities and differences between the bodies negotiating them.
Ulises Carrión (1941–1989, Mexico)
Living in Mexico, Ulises Carrión began to write from an early age, after which he graduated in English Literature in the United Kingdom before moving to Amsterdam in the 1970s. Perhaps the labyrinthine structure of the city provided him with the conceptual tools for considering communication flows. During this time, Carrión shifted his approach to literature and started asking artist friends to send him a book that they had recently made. These “bookworks” made by artists soon became an extensive archive, and were displayed in Other Books and So, a small space in the center of Amsterdam. Carrión also travelled extensively in Europe and developed a series of performances; a film festival about Lilia Prado; a series of paper works; the radio broadcast “Trios and Boleros”; and a new commission for Dutch state television. In 1984, he travelled to New York and made a window installation at the independent space Franklin Furnace together with his friend Frans Gribelling. Just before his death in 1989, the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam acquired a considerable portion of the archive of Other Books and So, and in 2015 the Center for Curatorial Studies at Bard College in upstate New York acquired the rest.